Testing and verification management are the processes and procedures to suitable critique the product (hardware or software) or processes (production). This is risk identification and mitigation activity as it attempts to quantify quality attributes of the product that may cause concerns with the customer during application. Testing and verification is also part of project management in that the results are often used to confirm contractual obligations are met, and thereby are part of project closure. Testing and verification management contain, planning and control, analysis and design, execution, reporting and closing activities. Hardware testing may include environmental stimuli (multiple simultaneous such as thermal and vibration) as well as testing the product to the extremes of functionality.